How to Setup Raspberry Pi Without a Monitor and Keyboard and Ethernet Cable (Headless Mode)

23. December 2017 01:41 by Parakh in Raspberry Pi, Headless Mode, SSH  //  Tags: , , , ,   //   Comments
This post explains how to install and operate Raspbian OS in a headless mode without using an external monitor, keyboard, mouse and an ethernet cable.

Key Takeaway:

Installation of the Raspbian operating system on a Raspberry Pi requires an external keyboard and mouse for providing input and an external HDMI monitor to see what’s happening. In this post, we will learn how to configure the boot media, so that we are able to leverage our existing Windows hardware for the installation and subsequent operations without requiring an external keyboard, mouse and a monitor, also known as the “headless mode”. We will also be connecting our Pi to our Wi-Fi network without the any intermediate use of an Ethernet cable and will allocate it a static IP address.

Read On:

Raspberry Pi is a single board computer that offers a fun way to learn about Linux and is capable of handling various projects that require light to medium computing power. It is one of the most favored platforms for prototyping an IoT project.

Installation of most of the Raspberry Pi compatible operating systems at the time of writing this post requires the presence of an external USB keyboard and mouse to provide input and an HDMI capable monitor to receive video feed of what’s happening. These requirements prove to be a bit of a hurdle in getting Raspberry Pi up and running. Fortunately, things are improving and creators of Linux distros are making sure that there are ways to configure Raspberry Pi to facilitate a headless install, configuration and subsequent operation with the use of existing integrated hardware like a pc or a laptop.

In this post I will demonstrate how to install and operate Raspbian operating system in a truly headless fashion using your existing Windows PC hardware. We will accomplish the following:

1. Enable SSH for logging into Pi after the first boot.

2. Connect to existing Wi-Fi with the help of supplied credentials.

3. Have a static IP address, so in future we will have the ability to reliably connect to Pi at a known address and enable us to operate services like a NAS or a media server.

4. Enable VNC server on Pi so we can remotely login into Pi and use the convenience of GUI to get things done.


To accomplish all that we need the following hardware and software:

1. Raspberry Pi 3 Model B.

2. A Windows or Linux enabled laptop or a desktop computer to download the Raspbian image to.

3. A micro-SD card to install Raspbian image onto.

4. A micro SD card reader-writer.

5. Image of the latest version of Raspbian operating system (with desktop).

6. Etcher to transfer the Raspbian operating system onto the micro-SD card.

7. Notepad++ to create configuration files. Please note that Windows Notepad won’t cut it.

8. Advanced IP Scanner to scan the network to note the subnet and ip addresses of various devices.

9. Putty to SSH into Pi after the installation of the operating system.

10. VNC viewer to remotely login into Raspbian operating system.

I am writing this post assuming that you are working with a Windows enabled computer.

Head over to and download the latest version of Raspbian operating system with desktop. Now we need to transfer this operating system to the micro-SD card.

To transfer the operating system onto the micro-SD card we will be using Etcher from Brilliantly simple to use and just works with a wide variety of image formats. Etcher can directly work with zipped images, eliminating the need to unzip the downloaded images. You can also download the portable version and use it without installing it.






Figure 1 Etcher in action

Once you have flashed and validated the micro-SD card with the operating system, prepare to perform some steps that are going to make the entire installation and subsequent operation a headless one. If you open the card in Windows Explorer, then you will be able to access the boot folder containing a few files. Since Windows does not recognize EXT4 file system, you will not be able to see or access any other of the partition on the card or any folder or file contained therein.

Enabling SSH

To enable headless configuration and operation of Raspberry Pi, it is essential that we have some mechanism to login into our Pi. SSH enables that. By default, SSH now comes disabled in Raspbian Stretch operating system. But it can be easily enabled by introducing a file named “ssh” with no extension. You do not have to bother putting anything in the file as just the presence of the file will indicate your intention to enable SSH in Raspbian at the first and subsequent boots.






Figure 2 Insert a blank text file SSH excluding any extension

Configuring Wi-Fi

One of the changes introduced in Raspbian Stretch was the ability to put “wpa_supplicant.conf” file into the boot folder which at first boot could be used to configure network settings. So open up your Notepad++ and open a new text file. Make sure to change the “End of Line” setting set to “UNIX” (Edit->EOL Conversion). If you do not change this setting, Notepad++ will use Windows end of line settings and network settings will not take effect.









Figure 3 Change the EOL setting in Notepad++ to UNIX when handling any file for Raspbian

Insert the following settings into the file:

   1: country=in
   2: update_config=1
   3: ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
   5: network={
   6: scan_ssid=1
   7: ssid="MyNetworkSSID"
   8: psk="MyNetworkPassword"
   9: }

Change the country entry to the applicable one. Similarly use the SSID of your Wi-Fi network and corresponding password.

Save the text file in the boot folder and name it “wpa_supplicant.conf”. The significance this file is that it serves the configuration to the supplicant (basically hardware or software that connects to a network. More info is available here), and after the first boot gets copied into the “/etc/wpa_supplicant” directory for operational purposes. You can read more about this here (in context with Raspbian Stretch).

Now that we have taken care of SSH and Wi-Fi settings, let’s get ourselves a static IP address where we can SSH to. Boot up your Pi.

Configuring for a static IP address

Now to assign a static IP address to our Pi, we need to login into Pi at the IP address that gets allocated to our Pi at its first boot. We will use that IP address in Putty and start our SSH session and carry out further configuration to work with a static address.

We can find the IP addresses allocated to various devices with the help of the Advanced IP Scanner tool available from Famatech. The best thing about this tool is that you can run this tool without installing it, in portable mode. Boot up your Pi and then run this tool to see the IP address allocated to the device.





Figure 4 Raspberry Pi connected to Wi-Fi with a random IP address allocated

Once you have noted down the IP address allocated to Pi, use Putty or your favorite SSH tool to login into Pi.















Figure 5 SSH into Pi using the allocated IP address

The default username and password to be used for logging into Pi are “pi” and “raspberry” respectively. After logging into Pi via SSH, use the following steps to configure Pi to have a static address.


Figure 6 Successful SSH login

Now give the following command to know about the gateway (your router in this case), just to be sure that your Pi is communicating at the IP address shown by the IP Scanner. This IP address is the one that will always be used by Pi to communicate to the router.

   1: route -ne



Figure 7 Gateway IP address

Once we have noted down the gateway’s IP address, it is time to figure out the name server. This setting is stored in resolv.conf file. Use the following command to pull it up and note down the IP address of the name server.

   1: cat /etc/resolv.conf]



Figure 8 Name server IP address

Now we need to modify the file “dhcpcd.conf” file which contains the network settings that go into effect once Pi boots up. Use the following command to pull up the file in editable mode in nano text editor:

   1: sudo nano /etc/dhcpcd.conf]

You should be able to see some pre-existing but, commented out entries showing you the way to configure the settings in this file. We will create a new entry block at the bottom of the file. Use the following entries to configure your Pi to use a static IP address at boot time and communicate to your gateway and use the designated name server:

   1: interface wlan0
   2: static ip_address=”your desired IP address”
   3: static routers=”your router’s IP address” 
   4: static domain_name_servers=”your name server’s IP adderss”


Figure 9 Configure the entries with the desired IP addresses

Once the aforementioned steps are complete, reboot your Pi for the network settings to take into effect. Use the command to reboot:

   1: sudo reboot –p

Once your Pi boots up, it will acquire the configured static IP address, and you should be able to login into it, using Putty.


Figure 10 Verification of newly allocated static IP address with the help of IP Scanner















Figure 11 Using the new static IP address to SSH into Pi

Once you have gotten into Pi, pull up the raspberry pi configuration utility to configure the Pi for the following:

1. Change the password from the default “raspberry” to something that only you know. This is an essential security measure.

2. Change the setting in “Advanced Options” to allow the Pi to see and use the entire file space. By default, that is not the case.

3. Change the setting in “Advanced Options” to change the resolution of the screen to what is native to your Windows machine.

4. Enable graphical desktop at boot from “Boot Options”.

5. Enable VNC from the “Interfacing Options” setting so we can use the VNC viewer to login into Pi using the GUI capabilities of Raspbian OS.


Figure 12 Raspberry configuration utility with all the options available


Figure 13 Configuring to boot into desktop mode


Figure 14 Changing the resolution to that of my Windows machine

Once all the changes have been done, reboot Pi. Now we will be able to login into Pi using VNC viewer.


Figure 15 First boot into GUI via VNC viewer

We have accomplished all that we had set out to achieve. Now every time you will access Pi, you will be able to access it over a static IP address and login into GUI. From here-on you can go ahead and configure Pi for services that require a static IP address. Depending on your expertise level and requirements, you can completely skip the VNC part and just configure Pi to have a static IP address and operate it over SSH.

Running Redis in a Master-Slave Replication Setup

This post explains how to setup Redis distributed cache in a simple master-slave configuration, where replication is automatically is taken care of by Redis.

Key Takeaway:

Redis has the facility to setup replication with the help of master-slave configurations. A master can have multiple slaves and a slave can further have slaves. In this article we will focus on a simple setup having a single master and two slaves and will discuss a general usage pattern which would allow for a robust setup.

Read on:

Redis allows for configuration in two flavors:

1. With the help of a configuration file,

2. At runtime through commands.

In this article we will setup both the master and slaves with the help of configuration files, as that is something more understandable and how instances are configured in a production environment.

Download the Redis for Windows from MSOpenTech’s GitHub Release page for 64 bit architecture, or if you are having a 32 bit computer, please refer to my previous article on how to compile Redis for a 32 bit Windows environment. Put the folder having all the files needed to run Redis in C drive.

Next we are going to discuss some of the settings required to be implemented in the configuration files, one for each instance of Redis. The general architecture that I am trying to produce here looks something like the following:

Master-Slave-Client Diagram

Figure 1 Redis replication basic architecture

Explanation of the architecture:

In Redis, master instance allows for both reads and writes, and in addition to that allows for disk persistence. Slaves, by default, are read only and allow for disk persistence. Over here, since this is just an introductory article, we are going to learn how to setup the simplest master-slave configuration. A more prudent setup would allow master to engage only with memory writes, and offload disk persistence to one of the slaves, and one or more slaves will dedicatedly handle the read queries. But we will discuss this in some later article.

In order to implement the aforementioned architecture we need to create three configuration files, one for master and one for each of the two slaves.

1. Nomenclature of configuration file:

It is important to name a Redis configuration file in such a way that the purpose and some vital information contained can be gleaned off from the name itself.

We will follow the pattern: environment.type of instance.purpose of instance.port number.conf

So a configuration meant for a master instance would bear the name like

2. Creation of configuration files:

Redis master: Copy the configuration file that comes pre-packaged with Redis and rename it to, where 5555 is the port that will be dedicated to master instance. You can name it differently according to the port availability on your machine. Open the configuration in a text editor and change the default port from 6379 to the one that is available in your machine.

00 Master Configuration

Figure 2 Configure master instance to run on port 5555

Redis slave 1: Make a copy of the master’s configuration file and name it like Change the port in the file to 5556 or something that is available on your machine. Now search for the “Replication” section and un-comment the setting of “slaveof” and provide the IP address on which the master instance will be hosted and the port number. Since we will be just running all the three instances locally, the IP address should be and the port number used in the master’s configuration file. The slave instance that we will run will take it’s configuration from this file.

00 Slave Configuration

Figure 3 Configure slave instance to receive synchronization from master

Redis slave 2: Repeat the aforementioned steps, with the exception of changing the port number to 5557 or something that is available on your machine and accordingly use the same port in the name of the file. I have named mine to

3. Running instances

Redis master: Open a command prompt and navigate to the folder where you are having Redis executable files and execute redis-server.exe in conjunction with the name of the configuration where fro it is supposed to pick it’s configuration from.

01 Redis Master

Figure 4 Master instance receives requests for data sync from slaves

Redis slave 1: Open another command prompt and again run the redis-server.exe file, this time specifying the slave configuration file. This will enable running a slave instance connected to the master. As soon as the slave instance will come up, the master will receive a request from slave for synchronization of data. This is shown in the screenshot.

02 Slave 1

Figure 5 Slave 1 receives and syncs data with master

Redis slave 2: Repeat the aforementioned step for slave 1, but with the other configuration file meant for slave 2.

03 Slave 2

Figure 6 Slave 2

Now run another command prompt and run redis-cli.exe and connect to the master instance. Insert some keys in the master and query them, just to make sure, they have gotten stored. Now disconnect from the master instance and connect to the first slave hosted on port 5556 (or where you hosted it.) and query for the same keys, that you inserted in the master. You will find them. Similarly you will find the same information synchronized in slave 2.

04 Redis Client

Figure 7 Redis client shows that master and slaves are at parity


Running replication in Redis is very simple and minimal configuration. The pattern shown here, is elementary, just to give an idea about Redis replication. There are more robust architectures that should be used in production settings.

Running Redis as a Service in 32 bit Windows

18. January 2016 06:57 by Parakh in 32 bit, Redis, Distributed Cache, Windows  //  Tags: , , , ,   //   Comments
This article shows how to run Redis as a service in a 32 bit Windows environment.

Key Takeaway:

Learning a lot of NoSQL data-stores is easy in part because all you have to do in order to run the server, is to click on an executable file and it starts listening on a local IP address and port. Redis works the same way. But in order to run Redis in production environment, one cannot rely on a console application listening on a port. After all, there’s always a risk of someone closing the console application and shutting down the entire cache.

To remediate this, we run such products as services. Redis is no exception and in this article we will learn how to run Redis as a Windows service.

Read on:

In my last article I showed how to compile and run Redis in a 32 bit Windows environment. In this article, I am going to use the same build to run it as a Windows service.

NOTE: If you have a 64 bit processor computer, you can directly go to this link and download the binaries, in ready to use condition.

NOTE: It is always preferable to run Redis on non-default port, as that gives us the option of running an ad-hoc instance of Redis server for quick experimentation and learning. In this exercise we are going to run Redis as a service in 32 bit Windows environment and provide the runtime configuration via a configuration file.

1. Navigate to the folder with a sample configuration file. In the source code that folder will be


2. Locate the line that signifies the port on which the Redis will listen for connections. This is found in “General” category. To search, use the word “port” and change the port number to something that is available on your machine. For this exercise, change it to 6377.

Redis configuration












3. Copy the file in the same folder as redis-server.exe. If you compiled the code that folder will be located at the following location: redis-3.0->msvs->Win32(*mine is 32 bit environment)->Release(* compile configuration). For more information on how compile Redis source code for 32 bit Windows environment, refer to my last post.

4. Open a command prompt and navigate to the location where you are storing the Redis executable named redis-server.exe and execute the following commands:

a. C:/Redis-3.0>Redis-server - -service-install  - -service-name “Redis Server”

b. C:/Redis-3.0>net start “Redis Server”

c. C:/Redis-3.0>Redis-cli –h –p 6377

Test Redis installation as a service















5. If the service installation was successful and it started successfully, then you will be able to ping the server and receive a response back.

6. Just in case you decide to uninstall the service, issue the following commands:

a. C:/Redis-3.0\msvs\Win32\Release>net stop “Redis Server”

b. C:/Redis-3.0\msvs\Win32\Release>sc delete “Redis Server”

Stop and uninstall Redis service











Now you can go ahead and practice with Redis command line interface by connecting to this service.

Running Redis in 32 bit Windows

1. January 2016 00:45 by Parakh in NoSQL, Redis, Distributed Cache, Visual Studio, 32 bit  //  Tags: , , , ,   //   Comments
In this article we discuss how to compile Redis code released for Windows in Visual Studio to run it in a 32 bit Windows environment.

Key Takeaway:

Redis started its life in Linux environment and to this date, it is officially supported only in Linux environment. However, the good folks at Microsoft had started a new division with the sole purpose of porting such useful products to Windows environment and let developers use them with confidence and with the support of Microsoft behind them. Even though that division has now merged back into Microsoft, engineers at Microsoft continue to make contributions to ported projects.

With the 64 bit architecture becoming the de-facto standard in commodity computers, open source contributors and organizations around the world have started to focus on releasing binaries for 64 bit architectures. That leaves people like me who are living perfectly fine life with their old trusty computers having 32 bit processors powering them. The silver lining in this scenario, is that if you have access to the source code of a product, then you can compile it for 32 bit architecture and then use it.

This article shows how to download Redis source code, compile it using Visual Studio for a 32 bit architecture and then run it in a Windows environment.

Read on:

If you are a .Net developer, chances are that you have for majority of your professional life, written code on Windows platform, for Windows platform. On top of that if you have an old computer powered by a 32 bit processor, then you are striving to find ways to learn the new and up-coming technologies, such as NoSQL databases – MongoDB, Redis etc. which primarily have been released for 64 bit architectures.

I have been working with Redis since the past couple of months now and started learning Redis on my personal laptop which at the time of writing this article is 8 years young. This sometimes leaves me in a bit of a lurch as the newer projects and products are mainly focusing on releasing for 64 bit architectures. Well, all is not lost if you are willing to put up a little fight and compile the source code yourself, if it is available.

Thankfully Microsoft recognized that .Net developers should not get left behind when it comes to awesome products like Redis, just because they are not available to be run in the Windows environment, and hence they created a dedicated entity, Microsoft Open Tech Group devoted to porting these technologies in the Windows environment, and further the collaboration with the open source community. Redis is one of the projects that the group is handling at the moment.

Alright, so let’s run Redis on Windows in 32 bit architecture. Pre-requisite for accomplishing this is the newest version of Visual Studio 2013 with update 5, as without update 5, the process might not work successfully. If you do not have a paid version of Visual Studio, Community Version which is available for free here will also work.

1. Head over to Microsoft Open Tech Group’s Redis GitHub page for version 3.0 and download the source code available as a zip file.

2. Unzip the code in a folder in C drive. Make sure that the folder name in which the source code is housed bears a name with no space or special character.

3. Open the solution located in the msvs folder in Visual Studio.

4. Open the solution’s properties and go to the configuration manager and change the “Active solution configuration” to Release and “Active solution platform” to x86.













5. Now build the solution. Note there will be a few warnings that’ll come up, but ignore them.

6. Once the build completes, you will notice that there will be a new folder named “Win32” that would have gotten created. Inside this folder will be another folder “Release”. Release folder contains the final build and the executable files that we can use to run and learn Redis.

7. Locate the file “redis-server.exe” and execute it. It should come up looking something like shown here. This is the Redis server which by default listens on IP address and port 6379.












8. Locate the file “redis-cli” and execute it. It should come up looking something like shown here. This is Redis command line interface and by default it sends commands on the address and port of and 6379 respectively.












Lo and behold, we have Redis running in 32 bit Windows environment. Thanks to the brilliant folks at Microsoft for porting this valuable piece of technology to Windows environment.

Hello Redis

25. December 2015 12:55 by Parakh in Redis, NoSQL, Distributed Cache  //  Tags: , , ,   //   Comments
Knowledge about distributed cache systems now is fast becoming an essential skill for a developer. Redis is at the forefront of this product line.

2015 is coming to an end, and I have not written as much as I should have. It has been a busy year for me on the learning end and I am glad about it. Slowly, but surely, I am moving my career in the direction that I always wanted it to go. This year has been the year of NoSQL databases for me.

There’s a storm going on in the NoSQL database world, each one vying to grab mindshare and occupy a place in your development stack. Now that developers have started to understand the segment better than before, these data-stores can be safely classified into broad categories per their use case fit, such as:

1. Want to write everything to file in a schema-less environment – go for document oriented databases like MongoDB, RavenDB etc.

2. Want to deal with deep hierarchical data and process it real fast – go for graph databases such as Neo4J, OrientDB etc.

3. Want to store everything in-memory for fast retrieval – go for in-memory data-stores like Memcached, Redis, Hazelcast etc.

and so on.

It is the first and the third categories in the aforementioned list, that can be leveraged in general purpose applications and either are already in enterprise-ready state or will be in a release or two.

I recently started learning about distributed caching solutions for one of my open source projects and thus began my journey to learn one.

A distributed cache is built upon the fundamental idea of separating out the caching component from the ones provided by programming frameworks like .Net and be hosted independently. When this idea spans several servers, it becomes distributed in nature, hence the name distributed cache.

Some of the major distributed cache products available can be found over at Wikipedia. Of particular interest are Memcached, Riak, Redis and Hazelcast, as they are free for any use and have got a wide community support. At the core of all products is the central idea of storing data in RAM as a key-value pair. Of course, different products differentiate from one another on the basis of features.

It has been a short while since I have been working with Redis, and I have decided to include it in all my web projects, if I have my way.

While this article is not having anything usable technical stuff or practical utility for that matter, I just wanted to write something, and at this time, Redis is all I have in my mind. I hope the departing year was a fruitful one for you, and I wish my best for the upcoming year.

Month List

Note: For Customization and Configuration, CheckOut Recent Tweets Documentation